The increasing population growth, expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, combined with weather variations caused by climate change, threaten the progress attained thus far to achieve food security around the globe. Agricultural practices, for instance, emit over 50% of global non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which contribute to the warming of the planet. Weather variations caused by climate change – such as floods, draughts, rising sea levels and extreme storms – profoundly affect smallholder farmers (SHFs), who are highly vulnerable to external shocks that damage an otherwise, steady source of income.
About 7% of agricultural non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions are a result of rice farming and over 80% of GHG emissions from rice farming are produced in South and Southeast Asia. To address this challenge, the AgResults Vietnam GHG Emissions Reduction Pilot has been designed to identify novel approaches for reducing GHG emissions and increasing yields in rice cultivation, and to scale the most effective approaches to thousands of SHFs. Given that the vast majority of emissions occur at the land preparation and cultivation stages of rice farming, the pilot focuses exclusively on the actors and emissions involved during these two stages of the rice production value chain. These actors include SHFs, private input providers, aggregators, universities and research institutions, government officials, co-ops, NGOs, non-profits, and development agencies. The pilot has been designed to promote tools, products and practices not commercially available in Vietnam or widely used in the Red River Delta (RRD) region.
The pilot pull mechanism has two phases:
Phase I: Low GHG Technology and Agronomic Practice Adoption: Implementers apply to participate in the first Year of the pilot. During this period, selected Implementers will tests their tool, product, or agronomic technique on controlled plots during a wet and a dry season. Participating Implementers will compete to win proportional milestone prizes on progress against a baseline of GHG emissions and yields. Prizes will be provided at the end of each growing season and at the end of the phase. Implementers can be single entities or groups of organizations from the private and/or non-governmental sector.
Phase II: Scaling of behaviours, tools and products to large numbers of SHFs: Implementers will work to increase the number of SHFs adopting successful solutions that lower emissions and increase yields. This phase will have a duration of 2.5 years. The first year will be used to scale SHFs effective adoption of solutions, while the second year will focus mainly on whether Implementers can encourage sustainable adoption of solutions. Prizes will be provided at the end of each growing season and at the end of the phase. Implementers that participated in Phase I of the pilot are eligible to continue engagement in Phase II, and may choose to partner with other Implementers to increase reach and impact.
Interim, Milestone and Grand prizes: The pull mechanism is a combination of performance-based grants provided to Implementers based on reach and verified effectiveness of adoption of solutions that reduce GHG emissions and increase yield.
The project anticipates reaching up to 75,000 farm households in the Red River Delta. The pilot also has the potential to reduce around 375,000 tCO2e and may result in cost savings of around 15% to SHFs as a result of lower input use. This reduction in emissions would be enough to offset around 78,000 passenger vehicles in the U.S. If proven effective, the solutions tested and scaled in this pilot can be expanded to other areas of the RRD and Vietnam.